By E. Anderson
Drawing on thousands of interviews with 15-22 12 months previous immediately and homosexual male athletes in either the USA and the uk, this publication explores how jocks have redefined heterosexuality, and not worry being proposal homosexual for behaviors that limited males of the former iteration.
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Extra resources for 21st Century Jocks: Sporting Men and Contemporary Heterosexuality
Furthermore, because women were mostly (but not entirely) relegated to a domestic sphere, they were reliant upon their husband’s ability to generate income. Thus, mostly robbed of economic agency, women learned to show their contribution through emotional expressiveness and domestic efficiency. Cancian (1986) describes these changes as a separation of gendered spheres, saying that expectations of what it meant to be a man or a woman bifurcated as a result of industrialization. Accordingly, the antecedents of men’s stoicism and women’s expressionism were born during this period.
The city provided a density of women that made activism more accessible. SmithRosenberg (1985) suggests that men felt threatened by the political and social advancements of women at the time. Men perceived that they were losing their patriarchal power. The antidote to the rise of women’s agency largely came through a re-masculinizing of men; and this was facilitated by sport. These tropes about the birth of 20th century masculinity are well explored in the sport and gender literature. However, a much undertheorized influence on the development and promotion of sport at this time comes through the changing understanding of sexuality during this period, particularly concerning the growing understanding of homosexuality.
Homophobia, therefore, was thought to present itself in the form of resistance against the intrusion of a gay subculture within sports; to serve as a way of maintaining the rigidity of orthodox masculinity and patriarchy (Pronger 1990). Sports not only rejected homosexuality, but also venerated hyper-heterosexuality. Gay males were therefore perceived “largely as deviant and dangerous participants on the sporting turf” in that they defy culturally defined structures of hegemonic masculinity (Clarke 1998: 145).
21st Century Jocks: Sporting Men and Contemporary Heterosexuality by E. Anderson